Trap Method Research in Cotton
RESEARCH PROJECT ON MASS CATCH WITH TRAP METHOD AGAINST EARLY HARMFUL THRIPS SPECIES ON COTTON
The aim of the project, which started in January 2017 in cooperation with the Bornova Plant Protection Institute (BZME) and was completed in December 2019, is to search for alternative methods to reduce the use of pesticides.
Thrips, which are harmful in the early period of cotton cultivation, cause significant yield losses when no control is made. It is predicted that about 4 chemical pesticides are applied against early period pests in cotton. For this reason, it is aimed to contribute to sustainable cotton production by minimizing the use of chemicals and protecting the effectiveness of natural enemies with the mass trapping method, which is one of the biotechnical methods against thrips. In addition, the fact that this method will be applied for the first time in cotton fields has added special importance to the project. For this purpose, in cotton, blue sticky traps and behavioral chemicals kairomones were used together in field conditions, and the applicability and effectiveness of the method were investigated. Also with the surveys, it was aimed to determine the control methods applied by Soke farmers and to get an idea about the applicability of biotechnical methods for farmers.
STEPS OF THE PROJECT
In the project, it was tried to determine the control methods applied by the farmers against thrips and the tendencies to apply biotechnical methods. For this purpose, a survey was conducted with 120 cotton farmers producing Better Cotton in the Aegean Region. As a result of the survey, it has been determined that cotton farmers have limited knowledge about biotechnical methods. But they are willing to use biotechnical methods if the method becomes widespread, they are informed and supported due to the problems they encounter in chemical control.
The cotton seeds used in the project were used without any chemical spraying. In the experimental areas, plots were set up with a blue sticky trap, three kairomones (Ferotrip, Verbenone and Lurem) and a control area. Pest counts and trap changes were made once a week after cotton emergence. In addition, the counts of the pests on the blue sticky traps collected every week were made in the laboratory environment.
In the experimental areas, no chemical spraying was applied during the cotton seedling period. In conventional agricultural areas, in this period, in addition to the seed spraying against sucking pests, chemical pesticides were applied twice against thrips in the field. In addition, chemical pesticides were applied to other early period sucking pests, varying between 2 and 6 depending on the pest status of that year.
Preliminary steps have been completed. Since this method will be tried for the first time in cotton fields, a trial field was established in Menemen both to determine the method and to determine whether it is applicable. It was determined that it was applicable and the project was started.
The efficacy of three different kairomones was tested with blue sticky traps. These kairomans are Ferothrip, Verbenone and Lurem. Cotton planting was done on 01.06.2017. As a result of the counting, the blue sticky trap used alone was not effective. It was determined that the most effective method was the combination of blue sticky trap + Lurem and the percentage of effect was 88.89%.
In 2017, blue sticky trap+kairomone (Lurem), which was found effective, was used. Cotton planting was done on 15. 05.2018. It was determined that thrips pest was kept below the Economic Loss Threshold in the censuses, although no spraying was applied in the trial field. As a result of the census, it was determined that it was 68% effective. However, it was decided to extend the project for 1 more year, considering that the effective period of the kairomone would be reduced due to the unfavorable climatic conditions and the heavy rainfall, and the effect percentage was therefore 68%.
Cotton planting was done on 12.05.2019. In the census, it was determined that the effect of blue sticky trap+kaioromon (Lurem) was 73%. As in 2018, it was determined that the thrips damage was kept below the Economic Damage Threshold in the field censuses.
As a result of the use of the blue sticky trap + Lurem combination, there was no need for chemical control against thrips species that are harmful to cotton in the early period, and at the same time, no seed spraying was applied against early sucking pests. While the pest is kept below Economic Loss Threshold, the number of spraying has been reduced, and accordingly, the fuel and labor costs for spraying and field traffic have also decreased. However, the cost of kairomone being produced abroad is higher than the cost of chemical pesticides, making it difficult for farmers to use this method. In order to disseminate these implementations, it is necessary to reduce the costs by producing the sticky traps and pheromones used in this project in the country or to include these methods in the support mechanisms.